Icon Our WorkEstablishing Comprehensive National Old Age Pension Systems

KfW Development Bank commissioned Stephen Kidd through Development Pathways for this paper which describes and explains the policy options available to developing countries committed to offering universal pension coverage and maximising the incomes of older people. Because the absence of pensions causes significant challenges for older people and society and only 48% of the world’s older people have access to a pension, this paper presents a basic model of a pension system comprising up to three tiers that can be adapted to the circumstances of all countries.