We are delighted to share the series of Pathways’ Perspectives – providing an opportunity to debate key issues on social policy in international development.

The Zomba conditional cash transfer experiment: An assessment of its methodology: Pathways’ Perspective #6

6-Pathways'Perspective- Zomba CCT Experiment

In our 6th Perspective, Stephen Kidd and Rebecca Calder examine the results of a study undertaken by the World Bank in an attempt to assess the effectiveness of using conditions in cash transfer programmes. Based on the findings of the study, in 2010, the researchers – Sarah Baird, Craig McIntosh and Berk Ozler– published a paper indicating that conditions made no difference.

Interestingly, by 2011 this conclusion ...

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Graduating Into — Not Out of — a National Social Security System: Pathways’ Perspective #5

5- Pathways'Perspective-Graduating Into Not Out Of A NSSS

Graduation Programmes have gone a long way in helping many vulnerable families develop diversified sources of income, build up their assets and self-confidence, and be more resilient to shocks and crises. But how do people fare once they have graduated from – or left – the intervention?

Perspective #5 argues that in order to ensure sustainability of benefits, countries implementing Graduation programmes must develop a national social ...

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A Case Study of How Not to do Targeting Analysis: Pathways’ Perspective #4

4- Pathways'Perspective-How Not to do Targeting Analysis

Stephen Kidd provides a critique of a recent World Bank paper that provides an excellent example of how not to do targeting analysis. The World Bank paper demonstrates how to deliver a desired advocacy conclusion by manipulating the assumptions that go into the analysis.

We have written this critique as part of our campaign for more objectivity in social protection analysis. In the next few months ...

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Social Safety Net ≠ Safety Net: Pathways’ Perspective #3


Stephen Kidd provides a follow-up to Pathways’ Perspective #1 – Nick Freeland’s reaction to the misuse of the term “social safety net” and the consequences of this.

Perspective #3 argues that the majority of “social safety nets” do not, in fact, fulfil the minimum criteria of a “safety net:” in effect, they are not available ...

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Child Poverty in OECD Countries: Lessons for Developing Countries: Pathways’ Perspectives #2


‘Child Poverty in OECD Countries: Lessons for Developing Countries’ by Stephen Kidd is a think piece examining how developed countries have tackled child poverty and what this might mean for developing countries.


While Development Pathways may not necessarily agree with the views of the authors, we believe it is important to give people space to express their opinions.


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Safety Net ≠ Social Assistance: Pathways’ Perspective #1 –

Pathwaysperspectivessafetynetsocialassistance 620x877nick_freeland

The first in the series – ‘Safety Net ≠ Social Assistance’ – is a reaction by Nicholas Freeland to what he perceives is a misuse of the term ‘social safety net’.

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While Development Pathways may not necessarily agree with the views of the authors, we believe it is important to give people space to express their opinions.

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