Development Pathways would like to thank Kwa Wazee for publishing this report as a part of the Development Pathways Working Paper Series. The report was produced by Edimund Kabairu, Jovenary Frances, Mandy Heslop and Stefan Hofmann.
Based on their experience with cash transfers in the region and aiming to contribute further lessons to the debate, Kwa Wazee started a small-scale pilot pensions programme with a universal approach in the Muleba District of Tanzania.
Since November 2016, every citizen over 70 years who has been resident for at least five years in one of the two villages Ikondo and Nsisha in Muleba District, has received a monthly pension of 15,000 TZS.
This paper presents lessons learned from the implementation and delivery of the pilot programme and the impact of pensions on livelihoods and the community. Moreover, it provides evidence in support of a universal approach to pensions, arguing that the small income differences between the poorest of older people and the average older person – combined with fluctuating family- or livelihood-settings – do not justify a means-testing approach.