This paper explains why using universality – social security for everyone within a population category – is more successful than other approaches in implementing social security schemes. The study demonstrates how this can be done, in spite of fiscal constraints, homing in on how to expand universal coverage over time.
The authors – Stephen Kidd, Nayha Mansoor and Angela Barca – also provide some practical examples from Uganda, Ghana, India and Vietnam. For each country, they estimate the costs of introducing a universal system comprising old age, disability and child benefits.
A collaboration with Act Church of Sweden and Action Against Hunger, the paper also outlines the impacts of universal systems.